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Catalogue

Civics for Secondary Schools - Form 4


About the book

This book covers two main topics: culture and globalization. It is meant to prepare the student as a grownup to appreciate and fit well as a member of his/her community, college and work place. Culture and globalization as topics outlines salient issues that makes the community and societies binds together. The book was prepared with the student’s excellence in mind. It utilizes competence-based approach that seeks to actively involve the Student in the teaching and learning process. The Author is a seasoned civics teacher.

Author: Huruma Kilakuno

Table of contents

CONTENTS

 

CULTURE........................................................................................................................................1

Aspects and Elements of Culture........................................................................................1

Meaning of Culture..............................................................................................................1

Characteristics of Culture...............................................................................................2

Aspects of Culture................................................................................................................8

Material Culture................................................................................................................8

Non- material Culture.....................................................................................................9

Difference Between Material and Non-material Culture......................................9

Elements of Culture...........................................................................................................10

Traditions..........................................................................................................................10

Customs.............................................................................................................................11

Religion..............................................................................................................................13

Art and craft.....................................................................................................................16

Language..........................................................................................................................16

Positive and Negative Aspects of Our Cultural Values..............................................19

Positive Aspects of Cultural Values..............................................................................19

Sense  of  Community...................................................................................................19

Sense of Good Human Relations..............................................................................19

Sense of Hospitality......................................................................................................19

Sanctity of Religion........................................................................................................20

Sense of Respect for Authority and Elders............................................................20

Negative Aspects of our Cultural Values....................................................................20

Food Taboos...................................................................................................................20

Early marriage.................................................................................................................21

Female Genital Mutilation............................................................................................23

Bearing Many Children.................................................................................................29

Stigmatization of Disabled People............................................................................29

Killing of Red Eyed Old Women................................................................................30

Customs that lead to Gender Discrimination............................................................30

Sex Preferences...............................................................................................................30

Property Ownership.......................................................................................................30

Bride Price.........................................................................................................................30

Customs that lead to the Spread of HIV/AIDS and STIs........................................31

Patriarchal System..........................................................................................................31

Spouse-swapping and Wife Inheritance..................................................................31

Scarification with Unsterilized Tools (traditional marks)....................................32

Spouse Inheritance.........................................................................................................32

Customs of Silence Surrounding Issues of Sexuality...........................................32

Traditional Male Circumcision that use Shared Tools.......................................32

Blood Mixing...................................................................................................................32

Eloping Marriage...........................................................................................................32

Analysis of Impact of Negative Aspects of Customs..............................................33

Gender Based Violence (GBV)....................................................................................33

Health Impacts of Gender-Based Violence............................................................34

Forced Marriage............................................................................................................35

Early Marriage................................................................................................................35

Ways and Actions to be taken Against Negative Aspects of Social

Cultural Values....................................................................................................................36

Awareness-Raising and Community Mobilization...............................................36

Report Unlawful Practices............................................................................................36

Involving Women in Decision Making from Family to National Level............36

Enforcing the Laws.........................................................................................................36

Provision of Education..................................................................................................37

Promotion and Preservation of our Worthy Cultural Values....................................37

Cultural values.....................................................................................................................37

Importance of Promoting and Preserving our Worthy Cultural Values............38

Culture Creates Identification......................................................................................38

Culture Promotes Unity and Cooperation..............................................................39

Culture Passes on Skills, Knowledge and Wisdom..............................................40

Culture helps to Shape Behaviors.............................................................................40

Culture Encourages Patriotism...................................................................................40

Cultural Activities Promote Development by Earning Income..........................40

Role of Groups and Institutions in Promoting and Preserving

our Cultural Values............................................................................................................41

Tanzania Film Censorship Board...............................................................................41

National Kiswahili Council............................................................................................41

National Arts Council.....................................................................................................42

Ministry of Information and Culture and Sports...................................................43

Tanzania Broadcasting Corporation.........................................................................43

Tanzania Culture Trust Fund........................................................................................44

Bagamoyo Institute of Culture and Art....................................................................44

Non Governmental Organizations............................................................................44

National Festivals and State Celebrations Unit.....................................................44

National Sports Council................................................................................................45

Problems Facing Promotion of our Cultural Values................................................45

Globalization....................................................................................................................45

Poverty...............................................................................................................................45

Low Technological Advancement..............................................................................46

Solutions to Problems Arising in the Process of Promoting and

Preserving our Cultural Values.......................................................................................46

Proposed Solutions.......................................................................................................46

Culture of Preventive care and Maintenance................................................................47

Meaning and Importance of Preventive Care and Maintenance of

Personal and Public Property.........................................................................................47

Meaning of Preventive Care and Maintenance....................................................47

Importance of Preventive Care and Maintenance of Personal and

Public Property................................................................................................................48

Consequences of Neglecting Timely Repair and Maintenance...........................49

Promotion of Life Skills........................................................................................................50

Life Skills...............................................................................................................................50

Coping and Self Management Skills............................................................................52

Managing Stress............................................................................................................52

Peer Pressure..................................................................................................................54

How to use Different Life Skills......................................................................................55

 

GLOBALIZATION.........................................................................................................................61

The Concept of Globalization............................................................................................61

Different Definitions of Globalization...........................................................................64

Historical Origins of Globalization................................................................................65

The Earth as a Global Village.........................................................................................66

Aspects of Globalization......................................................................................................66

Democratization..................................................................................................................67

Free Market Economy......................................................................................................68

The Technological Development...................................................................................68

Driving Forces of Globalization.........................................................................................69

Technological Innovations...............................................................................................69

Social Networking..............................................................................................................70

The End of the Cold War.................................................................................................70

Global Problems.................................................................................................................71

Effects of Globalization........................................................................................................71

Economic Effects.................................................................................................................71

Political Effects.....................................................................................................................72

Environmental Effects........................................................................................................73

Cultural Effects.....................................................................................................................73

Effects of Globalization in Tanzania.................................................................................74

Positive Effects.....................................................................................................................74

Economic Effects.............................................................................................................74

Cultural Effects.................................................................................................................75

Political Effects.................................................................................................................75

Negative Effects..................................................................................................................76

Environmental Effects....................................................................................................76

Economic Effects.............................................................................................................76

Cultural Effects.................................................................................................................77

Challenges of Globalization for Tanzania.......................................................................77

Environmental Challenges................................................................................................78

Economic Challenges........................................................................................................79

Security Challenges............................................................................................................80

Political Challenges............................................................................................................81

Cultural Challenges............................................................................................................81

Possible Solutions to Challenges of Globalization...................................................83

Formulating Appropriate Policies..............................................................................83

Technology Transfer and Investment in Scientific Researches.........................83

Cooperating Internationally and Enacting Laws for Combating

Global Crime...................................................................................................................83